The purpose of this paper is to introduce education system and its current condition in Kenya, further to discuss its educational challenges. In order to discuss its challenges in Kenya, the overview is introduced first,because the education system in Kenya is different from the one in Japan. Also, very few books and articles cover its overview of Kenya. In this article, the authors take qualitive approaches based on literature review and official data, as well as the observation of classrooms in Kenya and Japan by one of the authors, who has taught and supervised at the primary school in Kenya with visiting experience of Japanese classrooms. Based on the overview of education system in Kenya including teacher certification, education management, curriculum and school daily life, the authors discuss the educational challenging issues in Kenya, such as unequal access and quality education to marginalized communities, local culture in some areas still prohibiting access to education for girls, overcrowding at primary and secondary level, and inadequate infrastructure and shortage of teachers.