Multiple synchronous ground glass nodules (GGNs) are known to be malignant, however, they tend to progress slowly. Multiple synchronous lesions in the same patient which show different characteristics must be treated individually.
This was a retrospective review of 34 lung adenocarcinoma patients with multiple synchronous GGNs in an Asian population. One hundred twenty-seven single lung adenocarcinoma patients were included for comparison purposes. The follow-up period was 5 years for all patients.
The 5-year overall survival (OS) patients with multiple lesions did not differ from that of the patients with single lesions to a statistically significant extent (Single: 81.8% vs. Multiple: 88.2%, P = 0.3602). Dominant tumors (DTs) with a ground glass component and consolidation were divided into three categories based on the consolidation-to-tumor ratio on radiological imaging. No significant differences were observed among the three DT categories. Twenty-four patients had unresected GGNs, while a progression of the unresected GGN occurred in 10 of these cases. The OS and disease-free survival (DFS) curves of patients with and without GGN progression did not differ to a statistically significant extent (OS: 80% vs. 92.9%, P = 0.3870; DFS: 80% vs. 100%, P = 0.0977).
The outcomes were best predicted by the stage of the DT. After surgery patients require a careful follow-up because unresected GGNs may show progression. At the same time, the increase in residual lesions and the appearance of new GGNs were not related to OS. The management of such patients should be determined according to the DT with the worst prognosis.
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery.
Faculty of Medicine