• Copyrights of contents are owned by the author(s), publisher or academic association.
  • There are Fulltext contents that can be readed only from within the university.
  • Layouts such as pages may differ from published layouts.
  • For secondary use of a content, please use it within the range stipulated in copyright law, or obtain permission from copyright holder of the content.
Reference URL

When referring to contents by SNS etc., please use the reference URL described on the metadata page, for example "" in order to prevent link breakage.

Reference URL
How to Read Fulltext Contents

To read Fulltext contents please click thumbnail or next icons.

Publisher's version/ PDFThe articles are laid out the same as published version.
Author's version/PDFThe articles are different from the layout of the published version, however, the content is much the same. The published version should be cited instead of this.
DOI(Open Access)This is a link to access an article in Open Access Periodicals given DOI (Digital Object Identifier). You can read it free of charge from the page of Periodicals.
URL(Open Access)This is a link to access an article in Open Access Periodicals without DOI (Digital Object Identifier). It might be a broken link.
DOIThis is a link to access an electronic article given DOI (Digital Object Identifier). You can read it when it is subscribed by your organization or your own.
The number of downloads
The conditions for the number of downloads displayed on the SWAN metadata page are as follows.
  • As for PDFs released off-campus, the total number of downloads from the time of uploading the PDF to the 2 days before today is displayed.
  • The download numbers of PDFs that restrict access from off-campus are not counted (they remain 0).
However, the following accesses are not counted.
  1. What seems to be access from the same device.
  2. If there is a download from an access source that matches the combination of the IP address and the user agent (browser) within the past 24 hours, it is considered as an access from the same PC, cell phone, etc.
  3. A download by crawler
  4. It is distinguished by the user agent.
  5. A download from an IP address that made a large amount of access to SWAN once.