Iida, Tadayuki Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health and Welfare, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, Hiroshima, Japan
Inoue, Ken Department of Public Health, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan
Toda, Masahiro Graduate School of Human Life Sciences, Notre Dame Seishin University, Okayama, Japan
We designed a Japanese version of the Smartphone Dependence Scale (J-SDS) for university students, and assessed its validity and reliability. For development of this scale, we initially selected 43 preliminary items based on previous studies of Internet and mobile phone dependence. Each response was scored using a Likert scale (0, 1, 2, 3), with higher scores indicating greater dependence. After administering the preliminary scale to 149 university students, the final 29 items were selected according to exploratory factor analysis. The final scale consisted of 5 factors: 1) craving and withdrawal, 2) overuse and tolerance, 3) virtual life orientation, 4) disturbance of concentration in class, and 5) physical symptoms. Reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha) values for the 5 factors and total J-SDS were 0.87, 0.87, 0.76, 0.77, 0.69, and 0.92, respectively. We then summed the Likert scores for each item to provide a quantitative overall smartphone dependence score, with higher scores indicating greater dependence. The J-SDS score became significantly higher with longer hours of smartphone use (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that the J-SDS is a reliable and valid scale for screening university students who may be at risk of developing smartphone dependence.
Japanese Version of Smartphone Dependence Scale
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine
Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
Copyright © 2016 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Health Service Center