Rapid intraoperative cytology is a common method for examining resection margins in cancer surgery. Cytopathologists often face challenges with cytological diagnoses because of cell degeneration by electric scalpels. This pilot study sought to elucidate the effect of surgical instruments on cytological features.
Mouse models of tongue SCC were used （n = 10）. Tumor was excised using a stainless-steel scalpel （n = 2, SS）, electronic scalpel （n = 2, ES）, or ultrasonic scalpel （n = 2, HS）. Imprint cytology specimens from resected tumor were subjected to Papanicolaou （Pap） or Giemsa staining. Remaining tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. In SS specimens, heat-induced cell degeneration was observed less extensively than in ES. In perioperative rapid intraoperative cytology examination, surgeons should consider the possibility of changes in cellular morphology depending on the type of surgical instrument used. The cytopathologist should also be informed about the instrument used to resect the specimens.